Tarana is a type of composition in Hindustani classical vocal music in which certain words and syllables based on Persian and Arabic phonemes are used in a medium-paced or fast rendition. Sometimes some of the syllables used are from sitar or tabla; singers might recite full compositions (e.g. tihais, gats, tukdas) within the body of the tarana. It was invented by Amir Khusro, and is similar to the Qalbana form of Sufi poetry.
In modern times, the tarana is most commonly associated with Ustad Amir Khan, who did research on its origins and the syllables used, and helped popularize it. The structure consists of a main melody, usually short, repeated many times, with variation and elaboration at the performer's discretion. There is a second contrasting melody, usually with higher notes, which is introduced once, and goes back to the main melody.